Gujarati

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A language of India

Alternate Names
Gujerathi, Gujerati, Gujrathi
Population

45,700,000 in India (2001 census). Total users in all countries: 46,857,670.

Location

Mainly Gujarat except northwest and east, both shores, Gulf of Khambhat; Maharashtra: Nandubar and Nashil districts; Rajasthan: Jalor and Sirohi districts; Daman and Diu union territory.

Language Maps
Language Status

2 (Provincial). Statutory provincial language in West Bengal State; union territories Dadra and Nagar Haveli, Daman and Diu (1950, Constitution, Schedule VIII).

Dialects

Standard Gujarati (Mumbai Gujarati, Nagari, Patnuli, Saurashtra Standard), Gamadia (Ahmedabad Gamadia, Anawla, Brathela, Charotari, Eastern Broach Gujarati, Gramya, Patani, Patidari, Surati, Vadodari), Parsi, Kathiyawadi (Bhawnagari, Gohilwadi, Holadi, Jhalawadi, Sorathi), Kharwa, Kakari, Tarimuki (Ghisadi). Memoni ethnic group reportedly speak a Kacchi [kfr] variety.

Typology

SOV; postpositions; noun head final; gender (masculine/feminine/neuter); no articles; case-marking (6 cases); verb affixes mark person, number, gender of subject; split ergativity; passives; tense and aspect; comparatives; 31 consonants, 8 vowels, 2 diphthongs; non-tonal; stress on penultimate syllable.

Language Use

Used as L2 by Adiwasi Garasia [gas], Chodri [cdi], Dhanki [dhn], Dhodia [dho], Indo-Portuguese [idb], Kacchi [kfr], Rajput Garasia [gra], Sansi [ssi], Varli [vav].

Language Development
Literacy rate in L1: 70% for Gujarat state (2001 census). Fully developed. Bible: 1823–2005.
Writing

Braille script [Brai]. Gujarati script [Gujr], primary usage. Khojki script [Khoj].

Other Comments

Hindu, Muslim.

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