Hindko, Northern


A language of Pakistan

Alternate Names
Hazara Hindko, Hindki, Kagani, Kaghani

1,880,000 (1981 census). Total Hindko in Pakistan 3,000,000 (1993).


Hazara division, Mansehra and Abbotabad districts, Indus and Kaghan valleys and Indus valley tributaries, NWFP.

Language Status

5 (Developing).


Also related to Panjabi [pnb], Seraiki [skr], and Pahari-Potwari [phr]; which have all been called Greater Panjabi, forming part of Lahnda [lah]. Lexical similaritiy: 82%–92% with Northern Hindko dialects, 67%–82% with Northern and Southern Hindko [hnd] varieties. A member of macrolanguage Lahnda [lah].

Language Use

The educated also use Urdu [urd] with varied proficiency. Also use Pashto, Western Panjabi [pnb] with low proficiency. Used as L2 by Kundal Shahi [shd].

Language Development
Literacy rate in L2: Below 20%. Poetry. Radio programs. TV. NT: 1991.

Arabic script [Arab].

Other Comments

Muslim (Sunni).