Ho

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A language of India

Alternate Names
Bihar Ho, Lanka Kol
Population

1,040,000 (2001 census).

Location

Jharkhand, Singhbhum district, Kolhan, Seraikella, Dhalbhum areas; Odisha, Mayurbhanj, and Koenjhar districts; West Bengal.

Language Maps
Language Status

5 (Developing).

Dialects

Chaibasa-Thakurmunda, Lohara. Most understand Chaibasa and Thakurmunda dialects well; 90%–92% comprehend narrative discourse. Kherwari (Khanwar, Kharar, Kharoali, Kharwari) is group name for Ho, Mundari [unr], Munda [unx], and Santhali [sat], closely related languages, and other smaller languages or dialects. Lexical similarity: 85% between most dialects, except for 3 on Ho area east and south edges.

Language Use

Vigorous. Positive attitudes. Some also use Oriya [ory], Santhali [sat], or Hindi [hin].

Language Development
Literacy rate in L1: 1%–5%. Literacy rate in L2: 25%–50%. Literacy program in progress. Radio programs. Dictionary. Grammar. NT: 1997.
Writing
Devanagari script, used in Bihar. Oriya script, used in Odisha. Warang Citi script, no longer in use.
Other Comments

A Scheduled Tribe. Different from Ho (Hani [hni]) of Myanmar, China, Viet Nam, Laos. Traditional religion, Hindu.