Kashmiri

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A language of India

Alternate Names
Cashmeeree, Cashmiri, Kacmiri, Kaschemiri, Keshur, Koshur
Population

5,360,000 in India (2001 census). Population total all countries: 5,580,830.

Location

Jammu and Kashmir; Punjab; Uttar Pradesh; Delhi; Kashmir valley. Also in Pakistan, United Kingdom, United States.

Language Status

4 (Educational). Statutory language of provincial identity in Jammu and Kashmir (1950, Constitution, Articles 345–347).

Dialects

Bakawali, Bunjwali, Kishtwari (Kashtawari, Kashtwari, Kathiawari, Kistwali), Miraski, Poguli, Rambani, Riasi, Shah-Mansuri, Siraji of Doda, Siraji-Kashmiri, Standard Kashmiri, Zayoli, Zirak-Boli. Transitional dialects to Panjabi [pan]. Kashtawari dialect is standard, other dialects are influenced by Dogri [dgo].

Typology

SVO

Language Use

Most also use Urdu [urd] (Koul and Schmidt 1983). Some also use English [eng] or Hindi [hin].

Language Development
Literacy rate in L1: 88% male; 12% female over 35 years of age (Koul and Schmidt 1983). Literacy rate in L2: 55% for Jammu and Kashmir (2001 census). 83% would prefer use of Kashmiri rather than Urdu as medium in primary school, 48% in middle school (Koul and Schmidt 1983). Newspapers. Radio programs. Films. Dictionary. Grammar. Bible: 1899–2005.
Writing
Arabic script, Nastaliq style. Devanagari script. Latin script. Sharada script, no longer in use.
Other Comments

Muslim, Hindu, Sikh.

Also spoken in:

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