Georgian

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A language of Georgia

Alternate Names
Common Kartvelian, Gruzinski, Kartuli
Population

3,900,000 in Georgia (1993 UBS). Ethnic population: 3,980,000 (1993 UBS). Total users in all countries: 4,347,320.

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Language Status

1 (National). Statutory national language (1995, Constitution, Article 8).

Dialects

Imeretian, Racha-Lexchxum (Lechkhum), Adzhar (Acharian), Imerxev Kartlian, Kaxetian (Kakhetian), Ingilo, Tush, Xevsur (Kheysur), Moxev (Mokhev), Pshav, Mtiul, Ferejdan, Meskhur-Javakhuri. Imerxev is in Turkey, Ferejdan may no longer be spoken in Iran.

Typology

SOV; postpositions; noun head final; no articles; case-marking (18 cases: 7 primary, 11 secondary); verb affixes mark person, number, object; ergativity; passives; tense and aspect; 27 consonants, 5 vowels, no diphthongs; non-tonal; stress on first syllable; long consonant clusters.

Language Use

Meskhi are ethnically Georgian, speak Georgian, are Eastern Orthodox, and live in southwest Georgia.

Language Development
Fully developed. Bible: 1743–2002.
Writing

Braille script [Brai]. Georgian (Mkhedruli) script [Geor], primary usage. Khutsuri (Asomtavruli and Nuskhuri) script [Geok], no longer in use.

Other Comments

Adzhai Muslims are in Armenia. South Caucasian also called Kartvelian; Gruzinski is the Russian name. Christian, Muslim.

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