2,360,000 (1998 survey). 20% monolingual (1998 SIL). Scattered in Nepal border area.
Uttarakhand, Almora, Nainital, Pithoragarh, Bageshwar, Champawat, and Udhamsingh Nagar districts; Central Kumaoni dialect is in Almora and north Nainital; Northeastern Kumaoni in Pithoragarh; Southeastern Kumaoni in southeast Nainital; Western Kumaoni is west of Almora and Nainital.
Central Kumaoni, Northeastern Kumaoni, Southeastern Kumaoni, Western Kumaoni. Reportedly, eastern dialects are different. Names sometimes listed for dialects or subgroups are: Askoti, Bhabari of Rampur, Chaugarkhiya, Danpuriya, Gangola, Johari, Khasparjiya, Kumaiya Pachhai, Pashchimi, Phaldakotiya, Kumaoni, Rau-Chaubhaisi, Sirali, Soriyali. Most closely related to Garwhali [gbm] and Nepali [npi].
Home, community. All ages. Positive attitudes. Central dialect is most accepted. Hindi [hin] used in towns and markets, mostly by men but also by a few educated women and school-aged children.
Hindu, traditional religion.