Kaingang

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A language of Brazil

Alternate Names
Bugre, Caingang, Coroado, Coroados
Population

18,000 (1989 SIL). Ethnic population: 25,900.

Location

Paraná State: 9 reservations between Paranapena and Iguaçu rivers; Rio Grande do Sul state: 5 reservations of southeast dialect south of Uruguay river east of Passo Fundo river; southwest dialect on 7 reservations; east of Passo Fundo river; outskirts of cities in Rio Grande do Sul; Santa Catarina state: 8 reservations between Iguaçu and Uruguay rivers; São Paulo state: 3 reservations north of Paranapena river; Scattered.

Language Maps
Language Status

6b (Threatened).

Dialects

Paraná Kaingang, Central Kaingang, Southwest Kaingang, Southeast Kaingang.

Typology

SOV.

Language Use

Language use varies: in some communities all speak Kaingang as L1, but not in others. Growing interest in revitalization (Golla 2007). Most also use Portuguese [por], in some vilages (Crevels 2007).

Language Development
Dictionary. Grammar. NT: 1977–2005.
Writing

Latin script [Latn].

Other Comments

Alternate names now only used in old documents.

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