Kalinga, Limos


A language of Philippines

Alternate Names
Limos-Liwan Kalinga, Northern Kalinga

12,700 (2007 census), increasing.


Luzon, Kalinga Province, Pinukpuk, Tabuk, and Rizal municipalities.

Language Maps
Language Status

4 (Educational).


Intelligibility: Lubuagan Kalinga [knb] 65%, Southern Kalinga [ksc] 66%, Tanudan Kalinga 67% [kml], Ilocano [ilo] 84%.


VOS; prepositions; genitives before noun heads; articles, adjectives and numerals before noun heads; relatives after noun heads; question word in sentence-initial position; 3 maximum prefixes, 2 maximum suffixes; word order does not distinguish subjects, objects and indirect objects; word order does not distinguish given and new information, topic and comment; affixes do not indicate case of noun phrases; verb affixes mark number; passives; causatives; comparatives; CV, CVC

Language Use

All domains. All ages. Positive attitudes. Bilingual in Ilocano [ilo], other Kalinga varieties, English [eng] and Tagalog [tgl]; L2 acquired through school, trade, intermarriage, media, home, work, travel outside the community; and used in church, school, trade, and with non-speakers L1.

Language Development
Literacy rate in L1: 70%. Literacy rate in L2: 80%. Taught in secondary schools. Radio programs. Videos. Grammar. NT: 2004.
Latin script, used since 1976.
Other Comments

Lowland teachers and church leaders use other languages which Limos Kalinga speakers find difficult to understand, and it forces the Limos Kalinga speakers to shift to the other languages. Christian.