12,200 (2011 census), decreasing. No monolinguals. Ethnic population: 99,400.
Lumbini Zone, Nawalparasi district, south of Darai [dry] language area; Arghakhanchi and Palpa districts; Gandaki Zone, Gorkha and Tanahun districts; Rapti Zone, Dang district.
7 (Shifting). Language of recognized indigenous nationality: Kumal.
Palpa, Arghakhanchi, Gorkha, Nawalparasi. All four dialects are mutually intelligible, with Arghakhanchi being the most different.
SOV; postpositions; noun head final; 2 noun classes or genders; content q-word in situ; 1 prefix, up to 3 suffixes; clause constituents indicated by case-marking; verbal affixation marks person and number; ergativity; both tense and aspect; passives and voice; nontonal; 29 consonant and 6 vowel phonemes.
Religion; mixed use: Home, friends, work. Older adults and elderly. Some use among adolescents. Positive attitudes. All also use Nepali [npi].
Devanagari script [Deva].