12,200 (2011 census), decreasing. 0 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 99,400.
Lumbini Zone, Nawalparasi district, south of Darai [dry] language area; Arghakhanchi and Palpa districts; Gandaki Zone, Gorkha and Tanahun districts; Rapti Zone, Dang district.
7 (Shifting). Language of recognized indigenous nationality: Kumal.
Arghakhanchi, Gorkha, Nawalparasi, Palpa. All four dialects are mutually intelligible, with Arghakhanchi being the most different.
SOV; postpositions; noun head final; 2 noun classes or genders; content q-word in situ; 1 prefix, up to 3 suffixes; clause constituents indicated by case-marking; verbal affixation marks person and number; ergativity; both tense and aspect; passives and voice; nontonal; 29 consonant and 6 vowel phonemes.
Religion; mixed use: Home, friends, work. Older adults and elderly. Some use among adolescents. Increasingly positive attitudes, though not reflected in their language choices. All are bilingual in Nepali [npi], even the elderly are speaking Nepali half the time with each other. Most children do not speak Kumal at all. (UNESCO).
Devanagari script [Deva].