A language of Nepal

Alternate Names
Kumali, Kumbale, Kumhale, Kumkale

6,530 (2001 census), decreasing. No monolinguals. Ethnic population: 99,400.


Lumbini Zone, Nawalparasi district, south of Darai [dry] language area; Arghakhanchi and Palpa districts; Gandaki Zone, Gorkha and Tanahun districts; Rapti Zone, Dang district.

Language Maps
Language Status

7 (Shifting). Language of recognized nationality (2002, NFDIN Act, No. 20, Section 2C).


Arghakhanchi, Gorkha, Nawalparasi, Palpa. All four dialects are mutually intelligible, with Arghakhanchi being the most different.


SOV; postpositions; noun head final; 2 noun classes or genders; content q-word in situ; 1 prefix, up to 3 suffixes; clause constituents indicated by case-marking; verbal affixation marks person and number; ergativity; both tense and aspect; passives and voice; nontonal; 29 consonant and 6 vowel phonemes

Language Use

Religion; mixed use: Home, friends, work. Older adults and elderly. Some use among adolescents. Increasingly positive attitudes, though not reflected in their language choices. All are bilingual in Nepali [npi]. Most children do not speak Kumal at all. (UNESCO).

Language Development
Poetry. Magazines. Newspapers. Films. Videos. Dictionary.
Devanagari script.
Other Comments