A language of South Sudan

Alternate Names
Kpala, Kpara, Kparla, Kredj, Kreich, Kreish, Kresh

16,000 in South Sudan (1987 SIL).


West Bahr el Ghazal State; Raga and north through Katta, Kosho and Boro to Kafia Kingi. Also in Central African Republic, Sudan.

Language Maps
Language Status

4 (Educational). Language of recognized nationality (2011, Transitional Constitution Article 6(1)).


Dongo, Gbaya-Dara, Gbaya-Gboko, Gbaya-Ndogo (Kresh-Ndogo), Gbaya-Ngbongbo (Kresh-Hofra), Naka (Kresh-Boro), Orlo (Woro). 8 tribes and dialects. Gbaya-Ndogo is prestigious and understood by all. Naka is largest and also well understood.


SVO; prepositions; genitives, articles, relatives after noun heads; adjectives before, numerals usually before noun heads; CV, V, CCV (CVC rare); 5 tones

Language Use

About 4,000 others speak Gbaya as L2. All domains. All ages. Positive attitudes. Some also use Sudanese Colloquial Arabic [apd].

Language Development
Developed literacy materials in use. Taught in primary schools. Bible portions: 2003–2011.
Latin script.
Other Comments

Different from Gbaya languages in the Niger-Congo family.

Also spoken in:

Expand All Collapse All