15,000 (2008), increasing. 1,000 monolinguals.
Northern Luzon, Kalinga Province, Cordillera Region, Tinglayan and Butbut; Buscalan, Bugnay, Loccong, and Ngibat; Tabuk city, Lucnang, Pakak, Kataw, and Dinongsay; Rizal Province, Annenang, Malapiat, Andaraya, and Bua.
VSO; prepositions; genitives before noun heads; articles normally before adjectives, numerals, and noun heads; question word in sentence-initial position; 3 maximum suffixes; word order distinguishes subjects, objects and indirect objects, given and new information, topic and comment; affixes do not indicate case of noun phrases; verb affixes mark number; passives; causatives; comparatives; CV, CVC; nontonal
Home, community, church. All ages. Positive attitudes. L2 acquired through school, travel and media, and is used in church.
Christian, traditional religion.