Ethnic population: 13,100 (2000). Those under 20 are mainly monolingual in Japanese (1989 T. Fukuda).
Kagoshima Prefecture, northeast Okinawa, Kikai island.
Onotsu. Inherent intelligibility generally impossible or very difficult with Ryukyuan languages and Japanese [jpn].
Mainly older adults. The younger the generation, the more fluently they speak Japanese [jpn] (Wurm 1981).