Mostly second-language speakers, but growing number of L1 speakers.
3 (Wider communication).
A few L1 speakers in urban areas, especially children of parents who have other first languages. Used mainly as contact language in Sabah, so not yet fully developed. Speakers shift to other languages to fill in expressions in domains where Sabah Malay is lacking. If the only form of Malay a person knows is Sabah Malay, there will be difficulty understanding Standard Malay [zsm] in other domains.
May be a dialect of Brunei [kxd]. Bazaar Malay, refers to many regional nonstandard Malay varieties.