L2 users: 3,000,000 (2013 SIL). Mostly second-language speakers, but growing number of L1 speakers.
3 (Wider communication).Used throughout the state of Sabah in virtually all non-formal domains.
A member of macrolanguage Malay [msa].
A few L1 speakers in urban areas, especially children of parents who have other first languages. Used mainly as contact language in Sabah, so not yet fully developed. Speakers shift to other languages to fill in expressions in domains where Sabah Malay is lacking. If the only form of Malay a person knows is Sabah Malay, there will be difficulty understanding Standard Malay [zsm] in other domains. Used as L2 by Abai Sungai [abf], Bonggi [bdg], Gana [gnq], Ida’an [dbj], Labuk-Kinabatangan Kadazan [dtb], Lotud [dtr], Minokok [mqq], Molbog [pwm], Rungus [drg].
May be a dialect of Brunei [kxd]. Bazaar Malay, refers to many regional nonstandard Malay varieties.