5,560,000 (2001 census). 1,110,000 monolinguals.
Madhya Pradesh, Ujjain, Indore, Rathlam, Mandsaur, Rajgarh, Dewas, Shajapur, Nimuch, Sehore, Dhar, and Bhopal districts; Rajasthan, Jhalawar district. Sondwari dialect geographically isolated from the others.
Rajawadi, Sondwari (Sondhwadi, Soudhwari), Ujjaini (Avanthika, Malvi Proper), Umadwadi. Considered the standard variety, Southeastern Rajasthani Nimadi [noe] is reportedly most similar language with 70% intelligibility. 88%–92% intelligibility of Ujjaini dialect by other dialects. Lexical similarity: 65%–89% among dialects. A member of macrolanguage Rajasthani [raj].
Vigorous. Home, village, religion. Positive attitudes. 55% have high proficiency in Hindi [hin]; 20% have routine proficiency.
Devanagari script [Deva].