Mongolian, Peripheral

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A language of China

Alternate Names
Inner Mongolian, Menggu, Monggol, Mongol, Southern-Eastern Mongolian
Population

3,380,000 in China (1982). Population includes 299,000 Chakhar, 317,000 Bairin, 1,347,000 Khorain, 593,00 Karachin, 123,000 Ordos, 34,000 Ejine. 2,500,000 monolinguals.

Location

Nei Mongol Province, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region; Liaoning, Jilin, Hebei, Gansu, Ningxia, and Heilongjiang provinces, Urumchi to Hailar.

Language Maps
Language Status

2 (Provincial). Statutory provincial working language in Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region and other places (1984, Ethnic Regional Autonomy Act, Articles 10 and 21). Language of recognized nationality: Mongolian.

Dialects

Chahar (Chaha’er, Chakhar, Qahar), Ejine, Jirim (Gorlos, Jalait, Kalaqin, Khorchin), Jostu (Eastern Tumut, Ke’erqin, Kharachin, Kharchin, Kharchin-Tumut), Jo-Uda (Bairin, Balin, Keshikten, Naiman), Ordos (E’erduosite), Shilingol (Ujumchin), Tumut (Tumet), Ulanchab (Mingan, Urat). Largely intelligible of Halh Mongolian [khk], but there are phonological and important loanword differences. A member of macrolanguage Mongolian [mon].

Typology

SOV.

Language Use

Vigorous. Chinese living in the area can also speak it. All domains. All ages. Positive attitudes. Also use Kazakh [kaz], Mandarin Chinese [cmn], Uyghur [uig]. Used as L2 by Daur [dta], Evenki [evn], Kalmyk-Oirat [xal], Oroqen [orh], Tuva [tyv].

Language Development
Literacy rate in L2: 71%. Taught in primary and secondary schools. Magazines. Newspapers. Radio programs. TV. Grammar. Bible: 2003.
Writing

Mongolian script [Mong]. Phags-pa script [Phag], no longer in use.

Other Comments

Includes China Buriat [bxu], Tuva [tyv], Kalmyk-Oirat [xal], and speakers of other varieties. In Xinjiang, Torgut, Oold, Korbet, and Hoshut peoples are known as the Four tribes of Oirat. Buddhist (Lamaist), traditional religion.

Also spoken in:

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