Mongolian, Peripheral

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A language of China

Alternate Names
Inner Mongolian, Menggu, Monggol, Mongol, Southern-Eastern Mongolian
Population

3,380,000 in China (1982). Population includes 299,000 Chakhar, 317,000 Bairin, 1,347,000 Khorain, 593,00 Karachin, 123,000 Ordos, 34,000 Ejine. 2,500,000 monolinguals.

Location

Nei Mongol Province,Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region; Liaoning, Jilin, Hebei, Gansu, Ningxia, and Heilongjiang provinces, Urumchi to Hailar.

Language Maps
Language Status

2 (Provincial). Statutory provincial working language in Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region and other places (1984, Ethnic Regional Autonomy Act, Articles 10 and 21). Language of recognized nationality: Mongolian.

Dialects

Chahar (Chaha’er, Chakhar, Qahar), Ejine, Jirim (Gorlos, Jalait, Kalaqin, Khorchin), Jostu (Eastern Tumut, Ke’erqin, Kharachin, Kharchin, Kharchin-Tumut), Jo-Uda (Bairin, Balin, Keshikten, Naiman), Ordos (E’erduosite), Shilingol (Ujumchin), Tumut (Tumet), Ulanchab (Mingan, Urat). Largely intelligible of Halh Mongolian [khk], but there are phonological and important loanword differences. A member of macrolanguage Mongolian [mon].

Typology

SOV.

Language Use

Vigorous. Chinese living in the area can also speak it. All domains. All ages. Positive attitudes. Also use Kazakh [kaz], Mandarin Chinese [cmn], Uyghur [uig]. Used as L2 by Daur [dta], Evenki [evn], Kalmyk-Oirat [xal], Oroqen [orh], Tuva [tyv].

Language Development
Literacy rate in L2: 71%. Taught in primary and secondary schools. Magazines. Newspapers. Radio programs. TV. Grammar. Bible: 2003.
Writing

Mongolian script [Mong]. Phags-pa script [Phag], no longer in use.

Other Comments

Includes China Buriat [bxu], Tuva [tyv], Kalmyk-Oirat [xal], and speakers of other varieties. In Xinjiang, Torgut, Oold, Korbet, and Hoshut peoples are known as the Four tribes of Oirat. Buddhist (Lamaist), traditional religion.

Also spoken in:

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