Tohono O’odham


A language of United States

Alternate Names
Nebome, Nevome, O’odham, O’othham, Papago-Pima, Upper Piman

14,000 in United States (Golla 2007). 180 monolinguals (1990 census). Population total all countries: 14,094. Ethnic population: 33,000, including 20,000 Papago, 13,000 Pima (Ichihashi-Nakayama 2004).


South central Arizona. 60 villages on 7 reservations. Also in Mexico.

Language Status

6b (Threatened).


Akimel O’odham (Pima), Tohono O’odam (“Papago” (pej.)).

Language Use

Vigorous in the west and south. All ages.

Language Development
Taught at the University of Arizona (2007). From primary school on, schools of the Tohono O’odham Nation teach the language. Dictionary. Grammar. NT: 1975.
Latin script.
Other Comments

Different from Pima Bajo [pia] of Mexico.