Panjabi, Eastern


A language of India

Alternate Names
Eastern Punjabi, Gurmukhi, Gurumukhi, Punjabi

28,200,000 in India (2001 census). Population total all countries: 29,518,600.


Punjab, south Firozpur district, Bhatyiana; Rajasthan, north Ganganagar district, Bhatyiana; Haryana; Delhi; Jammu and Kashmir. Majhi dialect in Punjab, Gurdaspur and Amritsar districts. Also in Bangladesh, Canada, Fiji, Kenya, Libya, Malaysia, Mauritius, Singapore, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom, United States.

Language Maps
Language Status

2 (Provincial). Statutory provincial language in Punjab, West Bengal states; union territories Delhi, Chandigarh (1950, Constitution, Schedule VIII).


Bathi, Bhatyiana (Bhatneri, Bhatti), Doab, Majhi, Malwa, Panjabi Proper, Powadhi. Western Panjabi [pnb] is distinct from Eastern Panjabi, although there is a chain of dialects to Western Hindi (Urdu) [urd]. Bhatyiana dialect considered a mixture of Panjabi and Marwari [mve]. Majhi considered the purest Panjabi form (Grierson and Konow 1901–1929).

Language Development
Radio programs. Grammar. Bible: 1959–2002.
Arabic script. Gurmukhi script, primary usage. Khojki script.
Other Comments

Associated with Sikhs. Different from Majhi [mjz] in India and Nepal. Sikh, Muslim (Bhatneri).

Also spoken in:

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