Panjabi, Eastern

Print

A language of India

Alternate Names
Eastern Punjabi, Gurmukhi, Gurumukhi, Punjabi
Population

28,200,000 in India (2001 census). Population total all countries: 29,514,770.

Location

Punjab, south Firozpur district, Bhatyiana; Rajasthan, north Ganganagar district, Bhatyiana; Haryana; Delhi; Jammu and Kashmir. Majhi dialect in Punjab, Gurdaspur and Amritsar districts.

Language Maps
Language Status

2 (Provincial). Statutory provincial language in Punjab, West Bengal states; union territories Delhi, Chandigarh (1950, Constitution, Schedule VIII).

Dialects

Bathi, Bhatyiana (Bhatneri, Bhatti), Doab, Majhi, Malwa, Panjabi Proper, Powadhi. Western Panjabi [pnb] is distinct from Eastern Panjabi, although there is a chain of dialects to Western Hindi (Urdu) [urd]. Bhatyiana dialect considered a mixture of Panjabi and Marwari [mve]. Majhi considered the purest Panjabi form (Grierson and Konow 1901–1929).

Language Use

Used as L2 by Bauria [bge], Bhattiyali [bht], Bilaspuri [kfs], Chambeali [cdh], Churahi [cdj], Dogri [dgo], Kangri [xnr], Mandeali [mjl], Sansi [ssi].

Language Development
Radio programs. Grammar. Bible: 1959–2002.
Writing

Arabic script [Arab]. Gurmukhi script [Guru], primary usage. Khojki script [Khoj].

Other Comments

Associated with Sikhs. Different from Majhi [mjz] in India and Nepal. Sikh, Muslim (Bhatneri).

Also spoken in:

Expand All Collapse All