Punjabi, Eastern

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A language of India

Alternate Names
Eastern Panjabi, Gurmukhi, Gurumukhi, Punjabi
Population

28,200,000 in India (2001 census). Total users in all countries: 29,258,970.

Location

Punjab; Rajasthan: north Ganganagar district; Himachal Pradesh: Kangra and Una districts; Jammu and Kashmir: Kathua, Samba, and Jambu districts; Haryana state: Ambala and Pauchkula districts; Chhandigarh state; Majhi dialect in Punjab state: Gurdaspur and Amritsar districts.

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Language Status

2 (Provincial). Statutory provincial language in Punjab, West Bengal states; union territories Delhi, Chandigarh (1950, Constitution, Schedule VIII).

Dialects

Punjabi Proper (Panjabi Proper), Majhi, Doab, Bhatyiana (Bhatneri, Bhatti), Powadhi (Puadi), Malwa, Bathi. Western Punjabi [pnb] is distinct from Eastern Punjabi, although there is a chain of dialects to Western Hindi (Urdu) [urd]. Bhatyiana dialect considered a mixture of Punjabi and Marwari [mve]. Majhi considered the purest Punjabi form (Grierson and Konow 1903–1928).

Typology

SOV; postpositions; gender (masculine/feminine); no articles; case-marking (7 cases); verb affixes mark person, number, gender of subject; passives; tense and aspect; 15 consonant and 24 vowel phonemes; tonal (3 tones: high, mid, low).

Language Use

Used as L2 by Bauria [bge], Bhattiyali [bht], Bilaspuri [kfs], Chambeali [cdh], Churahi [cdj], Dogri [dgo], Kangri [xnr], Mandeali [mjl], Sansi [ssi].

Language Development
Radio programs. Grammar. Bible: 1959–2002.
Writing

Arabic script, Naskh variant [Arab]. Gurmukhi script [Guru], primary usage. Khojki script [Khoj].

Other Comments

Associated with Sikhs. Different from Majhi [mjz] in India and Nepal. Sikh, Muslim.

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