A language of United States

Alternate Names
Coso, Koso, Koso Shoshone, Panamint, Panamint Shoshone, Tümpisa Shoshoni

20 (Golla 2007). No monolinguals. No speakers who did not also learn English as children (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: 100 (1998 J. McLaughlin).


Southeast California, Owens Lake, Coso Range, southern Owens Valley area, southwest of Darwin; southern Eureka Valley, Little Lake area; Nevada southwest of Lida, Saline valley; eastern slopes of Inyo mountains, Argus range south of Darwin, northern Panamint valley; Panamint mountains; north and central Death Valley; Grapevine mountains; Funeral Range on California-Nevada border; west and southwest of Beatty, Nevada, Amargosa Desert, and Beatty area.

Language Status

8a (Moribund).


Similar to Shoshoni [shh] and Comanche [com] but not inherently intelligible with them.

Language Use

Only used among the oldest with each other. They lament the shift to English [eng] by youth. Older adults. English [eng] used in nearly all situations.

Language Development
Literacy rate in L2: 90%. Younger speakers attempting to revive interest in Timbisha among the younger generations, but with little success. Dictionary. Grammar.