4,000 (2004 FEL). Ethnic population: 4,000 (2004).
Central and western Formosa Province, Bermejo and Pilcomayo river valleys; Chaco and Salta provinces.
Chaco Pilagá (Toba Sur), Toba-Pilagá (Sombrero Negro, Toba del Oeste). Intelligibility between dialects needs investigation.
Vitality varies with age, education and frequency of Spanish [spa] use (2007). Home. All ages.