Wa, Parauk

Print

A language of Myanmar

Alternate Names
Baraog, Phalok, Praok, Standard Wa, Wa
Population

400,000 in Myanmar (2000 census). Population total all countries: 805,700.

Location

Northeast Shan State, upper Salween river area; East Shan State, Kengtung area; resettling since 2000 in southeast Shan State, Mong Hsat and Mong Ton townships, especially Mong Yawn, Pong Pa Kyin, and Mong Kyut town areas.

Language Status

2 (Provincial). De facto provincial language in Shan State.

Dialects

Ai Cheung, Ai Swa, Ang Krax, Awm Plawk, Bible Wa, Caong Naong, Cuan, Hom, Ien, Kang Seu, Kaung Sang, Kawn Cawng, Kawn Jiem, Kawn Mau, Kawn Poih, Kawn Rao, Kawng Lang, Kha Lax, Khui Ma, Kok Lah, La Dah, La Kong, Lah Kreum, Lhax Tiah, Lung Kua, Man Leen, Man Shiang, Man Teu (Jo Phyu, Man Teey, Man Ton, Man Tong), Man Tong, Meung, Meung Kun, Meung Mao, Meung Yum, Muik Lhang, Muik Lhax, Muik Nghawng, Muik Nu, Muik Raix, Muik Sime, Nawng Plawx, Nom Tum, Pa Tah, Pang Vai, Pang Yang (Muik Khaox), Panglao, Rho Mawng, Rok Tong, Sau Hin, Savaik, Sheeiem, Shiem Tum, Shiiem Ceeim, Si Gang Rai, Si Nawk, Si Nga, Si Viex, Simung, Taoh Mie, Toi Lawng, Veng Ngeen, Vui Sai, Yaong Brex, Yaong Khrum, Yaong Krak, Yaong Kua, Yaong Leen, Yaong Lung, Yaong Nong, Yaong O, Yaong Peng, Yaong Raok, Yaong Riex, Yaong Sang, Yaong Soi, Yaong Ting, Ying Phang (Sigang). Over 70 varieties of Wa in Myanmar; 300 varieties in China (2006 Institute of Nationalities, Sun Hong Kai). Wa official nationality standard form in China based on Yong Shuai, one of many Parauk varieties. Bible Wa, a composite language, based on the Yong Shuai, Yong Rauk, Mang Toei, and Toilawng varieties, forms the standard for Myanmar.

Language Use

Vigorous. Females in rural areas tend to be monolingual in local Parauk varieties. Males tend to be more bilingual. All domains. All ages. Positive attitudes. Also use other varieties of Parauk and Palaungic. Also use Burmese [mya], Lahu [lhu], Mandarin Chinese [cmn], Shan [shn].

Language Development
Literacy rate in L2: Burmese 8% (mostly males); Chinese 5% in border areas (mostly males); Shan 2% (males). Literacy classes. Dictionary. Bible: 2006–2012.
Writing

Latin script [Latn].

Other Comments

Traditional religion, Buddhist, Christian.

Also spoken in:

Expand All Collapse All