A language of Nepal

Alternate Names
Puma Kala, Puma La, Puma Pima

5,000 (2008 CPDP), decreasing.


Sagarmatha Zone, south Khotang district, Diplung, Chisapani, Devisthan, Mauwabote, and Pauwasera VDCs; Udayapur district, Beltar, and Saunechour VDCs; Ruwa Khola valley to Buwa Khola across the Dudh Koshi southward.

Language Maps
Language Status

6b (Threatened). Language of recognized nationality (2002, NFDIN Act, No. 20, Section 2C), Rai nationality.


SOV; postpositions; noun head final; content q-word in situ; clause constituents indicated by both case-marking and word order; verbal affixation marks person and number; ergativity; tense and aspect; no passive or voice, but antipassive is a remarkable feature; nontonal

Language Use

Adults use L2 as much as L1 (Toba, Toba, and Rai 2005). Home, religion, work; mixed use: Friends. Older adults and elderly. Some use among children, adolescents, and young adults. Positive attitudes, especially among younger generation. Almost all also use Nepali [npi], Bantawa [bap], or Chamling [rab].

Language Development
Poetry. Magazines. Films. Videos. Dictionary.
Devanagari script.
Other Comments

Traditional religion, Hindu, Christian.