Puma

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A language of Nepal

Alternate Names
Puma Kala, Puma La, Puma Pima
Population

5,000 (2008 CPDP), decreasing.

Location

Sagarmatha Zone, south Khotang district, Diplung, Chisapani, Devisthan, Mauwabote, and Pauwasera VDCs; Udayapur district, Beltar, and Saunechour VDCs; Ruwa Khola valley to Buwa Khola across the Dudh Koshi southward.

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Language Status

6b (Threatened). Language of recognized nationality (2002, NFDIN Act, No. 20, Section 2C), Rai nationality.

Typology

SOV; postpositions; noun head final; content q-word in situ; clause constituents indicated by both case-marking and word order; verbal affixation marks person and number; ergativity; tense and aspect; no passive or voice, but antipassive is a remarkable feature; nontonal

Language Use

Adults use L2 as much as L1 (Toba, Toba, and Rai 2005). Home, religion, work; mixed use: Friends. Older adults and elderly. Some use among children, adolescents, and young adults. Positive attitudes, especially among younger generation. Almost all also use Nepali [npi], Bantawa [bap], or Chamling [rab].

Language Development
Poetry. Magazines. Films. Videos. Dictionary.
Writing
Devanagari script.
Other Comments

Traditional religion, Hindu, Christian.