Romanian

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A language of Romania

Alternate Names
Daco-Rumanian, Moldavian, Rumanian
Population

19,900,000 in Romania (European Commission 2012). Total users in all countries: 23,664,640.

Location

Widespread. Muntenian dialect: Muntenia or Wallachia; other dialects north and west, including Transylvania.

Language Maps
Language Status

1 (National). Statutory national language (2003, Constitution, Article 13).

Dialects

Moldavian, Muntenian (Walachian), Transylvanian, Banat, Bayash. Little dialect variation. Bayash are Gypsies whose dialect is based on Banat, but influenced by Balkan Romani [rmn] and Hungarian [hun]. Lexical similarity: 77% with Italian [ita], 75% with French [fra], 74% with Sardinian [sdn], 73% with Catalan [cat], 72% with Portuguese [por] and Rheto-Romance [roh], 71% with Spanish [spa].

Typology

SVO; prepositions; noun head initial; gender (masculine/feminine/ambigeneric); indefinite article and definite article suffix; case-marking (2 cases); verb affixes mark person, number; passives; tense; 22 consonants, 7 vowels, 3 diphthongs; non-tonal; free stress.

Language Use

Some also use English [eng] (European Commission 2006), French [fra] (European Commission 2006).

Language Development
Fully developed. Bible: 1688–1989.
Writing

Braille script [Brai]. Cyrillic script [Cyrl], official usage in Moldova until 1991. Latin script [Latn], primary usage.

Other Comments

Christian.

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