A language of India


14,100 in India (2001 census). Population total all countries: 15,770. L2 users: 194,000 in India.


Uttar Pradesh, Allahabad, Jaunpur, Pratagarh, and Kaushambi districts; Delhi and other urban areas; revival efforts in villages.

Language Maps
Language Status

4 (Educational). Statutory language of national identity (1950, Constitution, Schedule VIII).


SOV; both prepositions and postpositions; noun head final; 3 genders; content q-word in situ; up to 3 prefixes, up to 5 suffixes; clause constituents indicated by case-marking; verbal affixation marks person, number and genders of subject and object; non-ergative; tense and aspect; passives and voice; nontonal; 32 consonant and 15 vowel phonemes.

Language Development
Literacy rate in L1: 60%–100%. Literacy rate in L2: 15%–25% literate. Poetry. Magazines. Newspapers. New media. Radio programs. Dictionary. Grammar. Bible: 1822.

Devanagari script [Deva]. Myanmar (Burmese) script [Mymr]. Newar (Prachalit Nepal) script [Qabc]. Sharada script [Shrd]. Sinhala script [Sinh].

Other Comments

Classical language of learning and liturgical language.

Also spoken in:

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