A language of Pakistan

Alternate Names
Brokpa, Shinaki, Sina

337,000 in Pakistan (1998 census), increasing. Population total all countries: 371,400.


North, Gilgit District, scattered villages in Yasin and Ishkoman valleys, Punial, Gilgit, Haramosh, lower Hunza Valley; Diamer district, Chilas area, Darel and Tangir valleys, Astor Valley; scattered in Baltistan district, Satpara, Kharmang, Kachura, and other small valleys; NWFP, east Kohistan district, Sazin, Harban.

Language Status

6a (Vigorous).


Astori (Astor, Dras, Gurezi, Kharmangi, Satpara), Chilasi Kohistani (Chilas, Darel, Harban, Sazin, Tangir), Gilgiti (Bagrote, Bunji, Gilgit, Haramosh, Hunza-Nagar, Punial, Rondu). Gilgit functions as the language standard. Shina is the primary language in Gilgit and Diamer districts. Lexical similarity: 79%–99% within Gilgiti (Northern) dialect subgroup, 81%–96% with Astori (Eastern) subgroup, 84%–98% with Chilas (Diamer) subgroup.

Language Use

Vigorous. All domains. All ages. Positive attitudes. Also use Urdu [urd]. Used as L2 by Balti [bft], Domaaki [dmk], Khowar [khw].

Language Development
Literacy rate in L1: 0%. Bible portions: 1929.

Arabic script [Arab].

Other Comments

Ethnonym: Brokpa in Baltistan and Ladakh. Glossonym: Brokskat, name also used semiofficially in India to refer to a highly divergent variety of Shina spoken by Buddhists. Muslim (Sunni), Muslim (Shi’a).

Also spoken in:

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