She

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A language of China

Alternate Names
Huo Nte
Population

910 (1999 Mao Zongwu). 1,200 monolinguals. 580 Luofu, 390 Lianhua (McConnell 1995). Ethnic population: 710,000 (2000 census) including 375,000 in Fujian Province, 171,000 in Zhejiang Province 78,000 in Jiangxi Province, 45,000 in Guizhou Province, and 28,000 in Guangdong.

Location

Southeast Guangdong Province. Luofu: Boluo and Zengcheng counties; Lianhua: Haifeng and Huidong counties. More than 10 villages.

Language Maps
Language Status

8b (Nearly extinct).

Dialects

Lianhua (Western She), Luofu (Eastern She). Major linguistic differences with Iu Mien [ium]. Most similar to Jiongnai Bunu [pnu]. Dialects inherently intelligible. Classification within Hmong-Mien is in dispute (McConnell 1995:1320).

Typology

SVO; modifiers precede noun heads; mainly monosyllabic roots, but mainly compound words; loans from Hakka and Cantonese Chinese; tonal, 8 tones

Language Use

Most ethnic She use Hakka Chinese [hak] as L1 and other Chinese as well (2007). All domains. Mainly adults. Neutral attitudes. Also use Hakka [hak], Min [nan], or Mandarin Chinese [cmn]. Written Chinese is in common use.

Language Development
Literacy rate in L2: 88% in any language for She nationality (2000 census). Grammar.
Other Comments

Officially classified within She nationality. Shehua refers to Hakka [hak] variety spoken by the She. Daoist.