Tujia, Northern

Print

A language of China

Alternate Names
pi tsi kha, Tuchia, Tudja
Population

70,000 (Brassett and Brassett 2005). Regularly used but increasingly the young prefer to speak Chinese and are encouraged by their parents. In most areas children acquire a passive knowledge only. No longer used in southeastern Sichuan, northeastern Guizhou, and southwestern Hubei provinces. No longer used or moribund in northwestern Hunan and severely endangered in the remaining areas (Bradley 2007a). No monolinguals. Ethnic population: 8,030,000 (2000 census). Ethnic population includes 1,500 speakers of Southern Tujia [tjs].

Location

Chongqing province: southeast; Guizhou province; Hubei province: southwest; Hunan province: Yanhe and Yingjiang counties. Wuling mountain range.

Language Maps
Language Status

8a (Moribund). Language of recognized nationality: Tujia.

Dialects

Longshan, Baojing. Northern and Southern Tujia [tjs] are not mutually intelligible. Lexical similarity: 40% with Southern Tujia [tjs].

Typology

SOV; tonal, 4 tones; no voiced stops or affricates.

Language Use

Regularly used but increasingly the young prefer to speak Chinese and are encouraged by their parents. In most areas children acquire a passive knowledge only. No longer used in southeastern Sichuan, northeastern Guizhou and southwestern Hubei provinces. No longer used or moribund in northwestern Hunan and severely endangered in the remaining areas (Bradley 2007a). All domains. 60% older than 50 years, 30% between 20 and 50, 10% under 25. Most also use Mandarin Chinese [cmn]. Also use Hmong Njua [hnj].

Language Development
Literacy rate in L2: 88% in Chinese (2000 census, Tujia nationality). Grammar.
Other Comments

Traditional religion, Buddhist.