Tujia, Northern

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A language of China

Alternate Names
Tuchia, Tudja
Population

70,000 (Brassett and Brassett 2005). Regularly used but increasingly the young prefer to speak Chinese and are encouraged by their parents. In most areas children acquire a passive knowledge only. No longer used in southeastern Sichuan, northeastern Guizhou, and southwestern Hubei provinces. No longer used or moribund in northwestern Hunan and severely endangered in the remaining areas (Bradley 2007). 100 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 8,030,000 (2000 census). Ethnic population includes 1,500 speakers of Southern Tujia [tjs].

Location

Northwest Hunan Province, Yingjiang and Yanhe counties; southwest Hubei and southeast Chongqing provinces, Wuling mountain range; some in Guizhou Province.

Language Maps
Language Status

8a (Moribund). Language of recognized nationality: Tujia.

Dialects

Baojing, Longshan. Northern and Southern Tujia [tjs] are not mutually intelligible. Lexical similarity: 40% with Southern Tujia [tjs].

Typology

SOV; tonal, 4 tones; no voiced stops or affricates.

Language Use

Regularly used but increasingly the young prefer to speak Chinese and are encouraged by their parents. In most areas children acquire a passive knowledge only. No longer used in southeastern Sichuan, northeastern Guizhou and southwestern Hubei provinces. No longer used or moribund in northwestern Hunan and severely endangered in the remaining areas (Bradley 2007). All domains. 60% older than 50 years, 30% between 20 and 50, 10% under 25. Most also use Mandarin Chinese [cmn]. Written Chinese in use and used in schools. Also use Hmong Njua [hnj].

Language Development
Literacy rate in L2: 88% in Chinese (2000 census, Tujia nationality). Grammar.
Other Comments

Traditional religion, Buddhist.