Totonac, Upper Necaxa


A language of Mexico


3,400 (2000 INEGI). 20%–30% monolingual. Ethnic population: 5,800.


Northeast Puebla, Necaxa river valley, Chicontla, Patla, Cacahuatlán, and San Pedro Tlalontongo towns.

Language Maps
Language Status

6b (Threatened).


Most similar to Tecpatlan Totonac [tcw]. Northern Totonac [too] materials are difficult to understand.

Language Use

Moderate use. Not all parents pass it on to children. Local administration, commerce, religion. Mainly adults. Neutral attitudes. 70%–80% use Spanish [spa] as L2. A few may also speak Nahuatl. Spanish used in schools.

Language Development
Literacy rate in L1: 5%. Literacy rate in L2: 30%. Bilingual primary schools in Patla and San Pedro. NT: 1999.
Latin script.
Other Comments

Young people must leave to find jobs.