North Maluku Province, Tubelo, Kao, and Jailolo districts, North Halmahera; Maba and Wasile districts, Central Halmahera. Halmahera island, west coast, contiguous area surrounding Kao bay, inland. Morotai island, east coast central. Communities on Patani, Weda, Gane, Bacan, Obi, Ambon, and Raja Ampat islands. Papua Province, Sorong area.
Boëng, Dodinga, Tobelo (Heleworuru).
Positive attitudes. Also use Indonesian [ind].
Taught in middle school in Tobelo town. Traditional religion, Christian.