40,000 in Argentina (Crevels 2007). No monolinguals. Population total all countries: 41,510. Ethnic population: 69,500 (2004 INDEC).
Chaco Province, Resistencia, Fontana, Saenz Peña, Castelli, Tres Isletas, Miraflores, La Leonesa, Las Palmas, San Martín, Pcia. Roca, Bermejito, Pampa del Indio; Formosa Province, San Carlos, El Colorado, Misión Laishí, and others; Santa Fe Province, Rosario; Buenos Aires Province, La Plata. Also in Bolivia, Paraguay (Toba Qom).
Northern Toba, Southeast Toba.
Speakers’ competence varies considerably according to location, age and attitude (Crevels 2007). Home, friends, work, religion. All ages in the smaller communities; adult speakers in larger towns and cities.