Tamang, Southwestern

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A language of Nepal

Alternate Names
Kath-Bhotiya, Lama Bhote, Murmi, Rongba, Sain, Tamang Gyoi, Tamang Lengmo, Tamang Tam
Population

109,000 (1991 census), increasing. Population for all Tamang varieties: 1,350,000 (2011 census).

Location

Bagmati Zone, southern Dhading district; Narayani Zone, Chitwan, northwest Makwanpur, Bara, Parsa, and Rautahat districts; west and northwest Kathmandu district area.

Language Status

6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized indigenous nationality: Tamang.

Dialects

Preliminary results: 86% intelligibility of Western Trisuli Tamang [tdg], 87% by Central-Eastern Tamang [taj], 54%–67% by Outer-Eastern Tamang [taj]. Relationship within Tamang needs evaluation. Southwestern Tamang has 80% lexical similarity with Western Trisuli Tamang [tdg], 76%–78% with Western Rasuwa dialect [tdg], 78% with Northwestern Tamang [tmk], 70%–73% with Eastern Gorkha Tamang [tge], 77%–93% with Eastern Tamang [taj].

Typology

SOV; postpositions; noun head both initial and final; no noun classes or gender; content q-word initial; up to 4 suffixes; clause constituents indicated by case-marking; genitives after nouns; relatives before nouns; question word medial; ergativity; tense and aspect; no passives or voice; CV, CVC, CCV, V, CCVC, CVCCC; tonal; 24 consonant and 5 vowel phonemes.

Language Use

Home; mixed use: Friends, religion, work, education. All ages. Positive attitudes. Also use Tibetan [bod] in religious contexts. Also use Nepali [npi] in official contexts. Also use Bhojpuri [bho], Maithili [mai].

Language Development
Literacy rate in L1: 1%–10%. Literacy rate in L2: 25%–75%. Taught in primary schools. Poetry. Magazines. Newspapers. New media. Radio programs. Films. Dictionary.
Writing

Devanagari script [Deva].

Other Comments

Buddhist, traditional religion.