1,940,000 in South Africa (2006), increasing. Population total all countries: 3,669,000.
Limpopo and Mpumalanga provinces. Also in Mozambique, Swaziland, Zimbabwe.
1 (National). Statutory national language (1996, Constitution, Article 6(1)).
Changana, Gwamba (Gwapa), Hlave, Jonga (Dzonga), Kande, Luleke (Xiluleke), Nhlanganu (Shihlanganu), Nkuma, N’walungu (Shingwalungu), Songa, Xonga. ‘Tsonga’ is used to describe Changana [tso], Tswa [tsc], and Ronga [rng], although often used interchangeably with Changana, the most prestigious of the 3. All are recognized as languages, although inherently intelligible.
Christian, traditional religion.