2,280,000 in South Africa (2011 census), increasing. Population total all countries: 4,009,000. L2 users: 3,400,000 in South Africa.
Northern and Mpumalanga provinces.
1 (National). Statutory national language (1996, Constitution, Article 6(1)).
Changana (Xichangana), Gwamba (Gwapa), Hlave, Jonga (Dzonga), Kande, Luleke (Xiluleke), Nhlanganu (Shihlanganu), Nkuna, N’walungu (Shingwalungu), Songa, Xonga (Ssonga). ‘Tsonga’ is used to describe Changana [tso], Tswa [tsc], and Ronga [rng], although often used interchangeably with Changana, the most prestigious of the 3. All are recognized as languages, although inherently intelligible.
Christian, traditional religion.