Tsum

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A language of Nepal

Alternate Names
Tsumge
Population

4,790 (2000).

Location

Gandaki Zone, north Gorkha district, Tsum valley, the region drained by the Shiar Khola north of Ganesh Himal. Chekampar (Chokong) is prestige village.

Language Maps
Language Status

6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized indigenous nationality: Siyar.

Dialects

None known. 71%–78% intelligibility of Nubri [kte], 66% of Kyerung (Kyirong) [kgy]; 60%–66% of Lhasa Tibetan [bod]; 22%–25% of Northern Ghale [ghh], 14%–22% of Southern Ghale [ghe], 23%–27% of Kuke [ght]; 6% of Eastern Gorkha Tamang [tge], 14% of Western Gurung [gvr], 15% of Banspur Tamang. Divided into upper region, Yarba, and lower region, Ushug.

Typology

SOV.

Language Use

Vigorous. Home, friends. All ages. Very positive attitudes. Tibetan [bod] viewed very favorably in religious domain; Nepali [npi] viewed fairly positively as language of education and potential advancement. Minimal bilingualism in Nepali [npi], used only with those who do not understand Tsum.

Language Development
Literacy rate in L2: 10% or less. A few primary schools.
Writing

Unwritten [Qaax].

Other Comments

Ethnonym: Tsumba, Glossonym: Tsumge by Tibetans in Kathmandu. Buddhist (Lamaist).