Tiwa, Northern


A language of United States


1,070 (Ichihashi-Nakayama et al 2007), decreasing. 998 Taos, 66 Picuris speakers (Ichihashi-Nakayama et al 2007). Picuris spoken by nearly all 230 members of the Picuris Pueblo. 800 Taos speakers out of 1,600 in the pueblo (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: 1,830 (Golla 2007).


New Mexico: north central.

Language Status

7 (Shifting).


Taos, Picuris. Taos and Picuris are not mutually intelligible (Golla 2007).

Language Use

Older adults at Picuris. Also use English [eng].

Language Development
Literacy rate in L1: 1%–5%. Literacy rate in L2: 50%–75%. A rule of secrecy is adhered to by all members of the Taos Pueblo never to reveal anything to outsiders that is intrinsic to Taos culture. As a result, any language education and retention efforts are not publicly known (Golla 2007). Bible portions: 1976–1992.

Latin script [Latn].