A language of Viet Nam

Alternate Names
Ngan, Phen, Tai Tho, “Thô” (pej.), Thu Lao, T’o

1,630,000 in Viet Nam (2009 census).


Central and northeast, near China border, Cao Bàng, Lang Son, Hà Giang, Tuye Quang, Bác Thái, Quang Ninh, Hà Bac, and Lam Dòng provinces; south in Tung Nghia and Song Mao. Possibly in Laos. Also in France, United States.

Language Status

6b (Threatened).


Central Tày, Eastern Tày, Northern Tày, Southern Tày, Tày Bao Lac, Tày Trung Khanh, Thu Lao. Similar to Nung [nut].

Language Use

Also use Vietnamese [vie].

Language Development
Literacy rate in L1: 1%–5%. Literacy rate in L2: 50%–75%. Radio programs. Dictionary. Bible portions: 1938–1963.
Latin script.
Other Comments

Tày is an official ethnic community. Traditional religion, Christian.