Wambule

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A language of Nepal

Alternate Names
Ambule, Caurasia, Chaurasia, Chaurasya, Chourase, Chourasia, Ombule, Tsaurasya, Umbule, Vambucauras Raduyor, Vambule
Population

4,470 (2001 census). A few elderly monolinguals.

Location

Sagarmatha Zone, south Okhaldhunga district, Wamdyal dialect: Rikdum, Lukuvapani, Wamdyal (Ubu), Huku, Sikapu, Tarkomdada, Salle, Dhepti, Dhaircaur, Khayapu, Lorphe, Thulacaur, Moli, Vaksa, Leva, Sinju, Gairigau, Dhemdalu, Kopsepu, Phasku, and Serankhu; Hilepane dialect: Pipale, Bhadare, Hilepani, Thakle, Mandhare, Sokma Tar, Dundunma, Jakma, Jerun, Ricuva, and Lambole; Udayapur dialect: Udayapur, Phedigau, Barasi, Ghiramdi, Simkaku, and Peku; west Khotang district, Jhappali dialect: Kurleghat, Majhkhani, Byanditar, Rupatar, Kharka, Cuvabot, Jhapa, Lurkhudada, Vaitar, Balui, Thumka, Pakauci, Goviar, Gurdum, Jayaram Gha, Bahuni Dada, Todke, Limlun, Damli, Vetagau, and Temtuku; Sagarmatha Zone, north Udaypur district and Janakpur Zone, northeast Sindhuli district, Hilepane dialect: Lekhani, Ghurmi, Salle, Sorun, Salleni, Pallo Salleni, Sindure, Majhkhani, Bhirpani, Kusumtar, and Jortighat.

Language Status

5 (Developing). Language of recognized nationality (2002, NFDIN Act, No. 20, Section 2C), Rai nationality.

Dialects

Bonu, Hilepane, Jhappali, Udaipure, Wamdyal. Dialects appear adequately mutually inherently intelligible. Jerung [jee] and Wambule are mutually intelligible (Opgenort 2004). Lexical similarity: 93% with Jerung [jee] (Opgenort 2005).

Typology

SOV; postpositions; noun head final; no noun classes or genders; content q-word in situ; 1 prefix, up to 4 (word-internal) suffixes and 4 phrasal affixes; clause constituents indicated by case-marking (and verbal marking for agent and patient); verbal affixation marks person and number; ergativity, but an expression of volitionality causes the intransitive subject to have ergative marking; both tense and aspect; no passives or voice; nontonal; 33 consonant and 9 vowel phonemes; ingressive laterals

Language Use

Vigorous. Home, friends, religion; mixed use: Work, education. All ages. Nepali [npi] is also used. Some bilingualism in Bahing [bhj] and Jerung [jee] resulting from intermarriage.

Language Development
Taught in primary schools. Poetry. Magazines. New media. Videos. Dictionary. Grammar.
Writing
Devanagari script.
Other Comments

Traditional religion, Hindu, Christian.