80,500 in Russian Federation (2010 census). Population total all countries: 360,500. Ethnic population: 174,000.
Kalmykia Republic, Volga-Don steppes northwest of the Caspian, north of the Caucasus. Dörböt dialect: mostly west Kalmykia; Torgut dialect: mostly east, lower Volga region, Astrakhan Province. Also in China, Taiwan, Germany, Kyrgyzstan, Mongolia (Oirat), United States.
Buzawa, Dörböt (Derbet, Dörbet, Dörböd), Oirat (Oyrat), Sart Qalmaq, Torgut (Torghoud, Torghud, Torguud, Torguut). Diverged from other Mongolian languages. Called Kalmyk in the Russian Federation; Oirat in China and Mongolia; in the United States, Kalmyk not heavily influenced by Russian [rus]. Different from other varieties in China called Oirat [xal], which are sometimes called Asiatic Oirat. In Mongolia, some scholars consider Oirat to be a dialect of Halh Mongolian [khk].
The modern literary language is mainly based on the Torgut dialect, though it incorporates a large number of concessions to Dörböt. Buddhist (Lamaist).