8,000 in Nicaragua (Adelaar 2007). Population total all countries: 8,700. Ethnic population: 9,760 (2005 census).
Atlántico Norte Autonomous Region and Jinotega Department; along Waspuk river, Bambana, Tungi, and Santo Tomás de Umbra, the upper Wawa, Panamahka dialect: along stretches of Wanki river, Tuahka dialect: Wasakin area, near Rosita.
2 (Provincial). Statutory language of provincial identity in northern, southern areas (1993, Atlantic Coast Languages Act No. 162, Article 4).
Panamahka (Panamaca), Tuahka (Taguasca). Reportedly similar to Ulwa [ulw].
Latin script [Latn].