A language of United States

Alternate Names

9,650 (2000 SIL), increasing. Few, if any, monolinguals (2000). 2000 census lists 7,010 who use the language in the home. Ethnic population: 9,650.


New Mexico, south McKinley County Reservation, south of Gallup.

Language Status

6b (Threatened).

Language Use

Some children raised to speak the language (1998). Slowly shifting to English [eng]. Home, traditional tribal council meetings, all religious ceremonies, and occasionally in religious services. Mainly adults. Positive attitudes.

Language Development
Literacy rate in L1: Below 1%. Literacy rate in L2: 75%–100%. The Zuni Tribe has collaborated with the public school district in developing a literacy program to help preserve the written language (2007). Schools in English [eng]. Some study of oral and written Zuni in primary school. Radio programs. Films. Bible portions: 1941–2007.
Latin script.
Other Comments

Traditional religion.