1,800,000 in China (2000 J. Edmondson). Population total all countries: 1,810,000.
South Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, south Yongning, Longan, Fusui, Shangsi, Qinzhou, and Fangcheng counties; some in Jingxi county; Yunnan Province, Funing county. Also in Viet Nam.
Voiced oral onsets have merged into nasal onsets
Vigorous. All domains, especially in rural homes when no outsiders are present. All ages. Also use southwestern dialect of Mandarin [cmn] and Yue Chinese dialects [yue]. Many are partially or fully bilingual in one or more dialects of Chinese and often use them in business, education, government, market and other domains.
Officially classified within Zhuang nationality. Traditional religion, Daoist, Buddhist (Mahayana).