Ethnologue: Areas: Asia


61,151,000 (1995). Republic of Turkey, Turkiye Cumhuriyeti. Literacy rate 76% to 90%. Also includes Mesopotamian Spoken Arabic 100,000, North Levantine Spoken Arabic 500,000, Western Farsi 500,000, refugees from Central Asia 50,000, possibly a few Assyrian Neo-Aramaic. Data accuracy estimate: C. Sunni Muslim, Christian, Jewish. Blind population 38,178. Deaf institutions: 12. The number of languages listed for Turkey is 37. Of those, 35 are living languages and 2 are extinct.

ABAZA (ABAZIN, TAPANTA, ABAZINTSY, ASHUWA) [ABQ] 10,000 in Turkey (1995); 34,800 in Russia (1989); 80 in Germany; 15 in USA; 45,000 in all countries. North Caucasian, Northwest, Abkhaz-Abazin. Dialects: TAPANTA, ASHKARAUA, BEZSHAGH. Has literary status in Russia. Speakers are bilingual in Turkish. Roman alphabet known in Turkey. Muslim. Work in progress.

ABKHAZ (ABXAZO) [ABK] 4,000 first language speakers (1980), out of 35,000 in Turkey (1993 Johnstone); 280 monolinguals (1965 census); 101,000 in Georgia (1979 census); 476 in Ukraine (1979); 105,000 in all countries (1993 UBS). Coruh in northeast Turkey, and some in northwest. Mainly villages in Bolu and Sakarya provinces. North Caucasian, Northwest, Abkhaz-Abazin. Dialects: BZYB, ABZHUI, SAMURZAKAN. 96% bilingual in Turkish. Agriculturalists. Sunni Muslim. Bible portions 1912-1981. Work in progress.

ADYGHE (CIRCASSIAN, ADYGHE, CHERKES) [ADY] 71,000 first language speakers out of 130,000 in ethnic group in Turkey; 6,409 monolinguals (1965 census); 280,000 or more in all countries; estimates of up to 1,000,000 in the ethnic group in Turkey, including Kabardian. Villages in Kayseri, Tokat, Karaman Maras, and many other provinces in central and western Anatolia. Also in Israel, Syria, Jordan, Iraq, USA, Germany, Macedonia, Russia, Saudi Arabia, Greece. North Caucasian, Northwest, Circassian. 94% bilingual in Turkish. Roman script. Agriculturalists. Sunni Muslim. NT 1992. Bible portions 1977.

ALBANIAN, TOSK [ALN] 15,000 first language speakers (1980), out of 65,000 in Turkey (1993 Johnstone); 1,075 monolingual speakers (1965 census); 3,000,000 in all countries. Scattered in western Turkey. Also southern Albania, Ukraine, Canada, USA, Egypt. Indo-European, Albanian, Tosk. 96% of speakers can use Turkish as second language. Sunni Muslim. Bible 1993. NT 1827-1913. Bible portions 1824-1914.

ARABIC, NORTH MESOPOTAMIAN SPOKEN (SYRO-MESOPOTAMIAN VERNACULAR ARABIC) [AYP] 400,000 in Turkey; 6,300,000 in all countries (1996). Mardin and Siirt provinces. Also in Iraq, Syria, Jordan,. Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic. Men are quite bilingual in Turkish. They do not read Arabic. Agriculturalists, small shops and businesses. Muslim, Christian. Survey needed.

ARMENIAN (HAIEREN, SOMKHURI, ERMENICE, ARMJANSKI) [ARM] 40,000 first language speakers out of 70,000 ethnic group in Turkey (1980 estimate); 1,022 monolingual speakers (1965 census); 6,835,000 in all countries. Many in Istanbul, and a few scattered across eastern Turkey. The Hemshin are Armenian Muslims, living near the Laz. Also in Armenia, Syria, Egypt, Lebanon, Iran, USA, France, Cyprus, Iraq, Israel, India, Jordan, Greece. Indo-European, Armenian. Dialect: EASTERN ARMENIAN. Eastern dialect spoken in Armenia and its Iranian and Turkish borderlands. Western dialect spoken elsewhere. Western (Turkish) Armenian and Ararat (Russian) are easily intelligible. 96% bilingual in Turkish. Christian. Bible 1883-1994. NT 1834-1976. Bible portions 1831-1991.

AZERBAIJANI, SOUTH (AZERI) [AZB] 530,000 or more in Turkey; 13,000,000 or more in Iran (1991); 300,000 to 900,000 or more in Iraq; 30,000 in Syria; 4,000 in Jordan; 5,000 or fewer in Afghanistan; 13,869,000 in all countries or more. Kars Province. Also in USA. Altaic, Turkic, Southern, Azerbaijani. Dialect: KARS. The people of Kars Province speak Azerbaijani but use Turkish as the literary language. There is a gradual transition of dialects from Turkish to Azerbaijani from central to western Turkey. Muslim. Work in progress.

BALKAN GAGAUZ TURKISH (BALKAN TURKIC) [BGX] 327,000 in Turkey, including 7,000 Surguch (1965) and 320 Yuruk (1993 Johnstone); 4,000 Macedonian Gagauz in Macedonia and Greek Macedonia; 331,000 in all countries. Yuruk dialect on the west coast in Macedonia. Altaic, Turkic, Southern, Turkish. Dialects: GAJOL, GERLOVO TURKS, KARAMANLI, KYZYLBASH, SURGUCH, TOZLUK TURKS, YURUK (YORUK, KONYAR). Distinct from Gagauz of Moldova, Bulgaria, and Romania. Muslim. Survey needed.

BULGARIAN (POMAK) [BLG] 270,000 in Turkey, including refugees from Bulgaria (1993 Johnstone); 9,000,000 in all countries (1981 WA). Scattered in Edirne and other western provinces. Pomak dialect also in Thrace, Greece. Other dialects also in Bulgaria, Moldova, Yugoslavia, Romania, Hungary, Israel, USA, Canada. Indo-European, Slavic, South, Eastern. Dialect: POMAK. Spoken by Muslim Pomaks in Turkey and Greece. 93% bilingual in Turkish. Sunni Muslim. Bible 1864-1923. NT 1840-1927. Bible portions 1823-1994.

CRIMEAN TURKISH (CRIMEAN TATAR) [CRH] 300,000 or more in all countries. It is not known how many still speak it in Turkey, though there are definitely some Crimean Tatar villages, such as Karakuyu in Polatli District of Ankara Province. Also in Kyrghyzstan, Moldova, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, Romania, Bulgaria, USA. Altaic, Turkic, Southern. Dialects: NORTHERN CRIMEAN (CRIMEAN NOGAI, STEPPE CRIMEAN), CENTRAL CRIMEAN, SOUTHERN CRIMEAN. Muslim. NT 1666-1825. Bible portions 1659-1996. Work in progress.

DIMLI (DIMILI, ZAZAKI, SOUTHERN ZAZA, ZÂZÂ) [ZZZ] 1,000,000 in all countries (1992). East central, mainly in Elazig, Bingol, and Diyarbakir provinces, upper courses of the Euphrates, Kizilirmaq, and Murat rivers. Some in Germany. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Zaza-Gorani. Dialects: SIVEREKI, KORI, HAZZU (HAZO), MOTKI (MOTI), SHABAK, DUMBULI. Several dialects. Closest to Hawrami. The speakers are called 'Zaza', and the language 'Zazaki'. 'Dimli' is used for both speakers and language. Not a Kurdish language. Not intelligible with Kurmanji. Speakers from the southeast know some Kurmanji, but others do not. Some in Germany are publishing a magazine. Mountain slope, plains. Agriculturalists, pastoralists: sheep, goats, cattle. Sunni Muslim. Work in progress.

DOMARI (MIDDLE EASTERN ROMANI, TSIGENE, GYPSY) [RMT] 20,000 perhaps in Turkey (1982 estimate); 80,000 in Iran (1929); 50,000 in Iraq (1970); 10,000 in Syria (1961); 500,000 in all countries (1980 Kenrick). Mainly in western Turkey. Also in Libya, Egypt, Russia, Uzbekistan, Afghanistan, India. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northwestern zone, Dom. Dialects: KARACHI, BELUDJI, MARASHI. 500,000 Gypsies in Turkey speak Domari or varieties of Romani (Gunnemark and Kenrick 1985). Muslim. Survey needed.

GEORGIAN (KARTULI, GRUZIN) [GEO] 40,000 first language speakers out of 91,000 in ethnic group of Imerxev in Turkey (1980 estimate); 4,042 monolinguals (1965 census); 3,901,380 Georgia (1993); 1,000 to 10,000 possibly in Iran (Feredjan dialect); 13,595 in Azerbaijan (1979); 4,103,000 in all countries. Villages in Artvin, Ordu, Sakarya, and other provinces of north and northwest Anatolia. Also in Armenia, Kazakhstan, Kyrghyzstan, Russia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, USA. South Caucasian, Georgian. Dialect: IMERXEV. Imerxev is the western dialect of Georgian. 95% are bilingual in Turkish. Sunni Muslim. Bible 1743-1989. NT 1709-1993. Bible portions 1709-1982.

GREEK [GRK] 4,000 in Turkey (1993); 12,000,000 in all countries (1995 WA). Istanbul city. Indo-European, Greek, Attic. Nearly all Greeks have now emigrated from Turkey. There were 1,500,000 in Turkey in 1900. Bible 1840-1994. NT 1638-1989. Bible portions 1547-1949.

HERKI [HEK] Also in Iraq and Iran. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Western, Northwestern, Kurdish. Considered a dialect of Kurmanji. Muslim. Survey needed.

HÉRTEVIN [HRT] 250 to 300 (1994 H. Mutzafi). Originally Ekindüzü village, Siirt Province. They have left the village, but there are at least some probably still in Turkey. Others have probably emigrated to the West. Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, Aramaic, Eastern, Central, Northeastern. Some dialects spoken to the south, in villages like Jinnet and Dera may belong to this language. Considerable differences from other Northeastern Aramaic varieties, and not intelligible with any or most of them. Speakers are bilingual in Kurdish, and some are multilingual. Syriac script is used. Christian (Chaldean). Survey needed.

KABARDIAN [KAB] 202,000 in Turkey (1993 Johnstone); 443,000 speakers in Russia (1993); 2,000 speakers in USA (1981); 647,000 in all countries. Most around Kayseri. 1,000 villages of Kabardian and Adyghe in Turkey. Also in Saudi Arabia. North Caucasian, Northwest, Circassian. Close to Adygey, but a separate language. Sunni Muslim. NT 1993. Bible portions 1991.

KAZAKH (KAZAKHI, QAZAQI, KAZAX, KOSACH, KAISAK) [KAZ] 600 or more in Turkey (1982); 6,556,000 in Kazakhstan (1979); 1,111,718 in China (1990); 100,000 in Mongolia (1991); 3,000 in Iran; 2,000 in Afghanistan; 8,000,000 or more in all countries. Salihli town in Manisa Province, and an unknown number in Istanbul city; 308 in Kayseri Province; refugees from Afghanistan, now Turkish citizens. Also in Germany. Altaic, Turkic, Western, Aralo-Caspian. Roman script used in Turkey. Muslim. NT 1820-1910, out of print. Bible portions 1818-1989. Work in progress.

KIRGHIZ [KDO] 1,137 in Turkey (1982); 2,631,000 in all countries. Van and Kars provinces. Also in Kyrghyzstan, China, Afghanistan. Altaic, Turkic, Western, Aralo-Caspian. Speakers in Turkey do not read Cyrillic script. Refugees from Afghanistan; now Turkish citizens. Sunni Muslim. NT 1991. Bible portions 1982-1987.

KIRMANJKI (KURMANJIKI, ZAZA, NORTHERN ZAZA, ZAZAKI, ALEVICA, DIMILKI, DERSIMKI, SO-BÊ, ZONÊ MA) [QKV] 1,500,000 in all countries possibly or more (1992). 140,000 in Turkey including 100,000 in 182 villages in Tunceli Province, 40,000 in 13 or more villages in Erzincan Province (1972). Tunceli Province, Tunceli Merkez, Hozat, Nazmiye, Pülümür, and Ovacik subprovinces; Erzincan Province, Erzincan and Cayirli subprovinces; 8 or more villages in Elazig Province, Elazig Merkez and Karakoqan subprovinces; 3 villages in Gingöl Province, Kigi and Karkiova subprovinces; 46 villages in Mush Province, Varto Subprovince; 15 or more villages in Sivas Province, Zara, Imranli, Kangal, and Divrigi subprovinces; 11 or more villages in Erzerum Province, Hinis and Tekman subprovinces; and in many major cities of Turkey. Also in most major cities in Germany; Paris, France; Amsterdam, the Netherlands; London, England; Stockholm, Sweden; Switzerland; Austria; and Denmark. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Zaza-Gorani. Dialects: TUNCELI, VARTO. Closest to Dimli, 70% lexical similarity; a separate language. The people are called 'Kirmandz'. Also sometimes called 'Dimli' or 'Dimili'. Speakers are of all ages; most between 20 and 50. In Turkey Kirmanjki is used for conversations with family, friends, and neighbors; Turkish is used for religious ceremonies and for official purposes. Most men know some Turkish, and some know some Kurmanji. Women over 50 in outlying villages in Tunceli Province and children under 7 are monolingual. Some Kurmanji know Kirmanjki as second language. Abroad they use Kirmanjki for close relationships; Turkish for religious ceremonies, wedding celebrations, and conversations with some people. All who live abroad learn the national languages to some degree; older speakers to a lesser degree, and use them for communication with nationals. School-age children to those 30 years old can read Turkish, perhaps 100 can read Kirmanjki. 4 poetry books, 4 magazines. Typology: SOV; pre- and postpositions; genitives, articles, adjectives' relatives after noun heads; numerals before noun heads; question word replaces content word in content questions; 2 prefixes, 2 suffixes, word order distinguishes subject, object, indirect object; noun affixes indicate case; verb affixes indicate person, number, gender; ergativity; passives; causatives; comparatives; V, VC, VCC, CV, CVC, CVCC; non-tonal. Deciduous forest. Mountain mesa, slope, valley. Pastoralists (transhumance), peasant agriculturalists. Altitude: 1,000 to 3,000 meters. Alevi Muslim. Work in progress.

KUMYK (KUMUK, KUMUKLAR, KUMYKI) [KSK] (189,000 in Russia; 1970 census). A few villages. Altaic, Turkic, Western, Ponto-Caspian. Dialects: KHASAV-YURT, BUINAK, KHAIDAK. Dialects apparently quite divergent. Has literary status in Russia. Cyrillic script. Different from the Kumux dialect of Lak. Language of wider communication. Muslim. Bible portions 1888-1897. Work in progress.

KURMANJI (NORTHERN KURDISH, KERMANJI, KIRMANJI, KIRDASI, KIRMÂNCHA, BÂHDINÂNI) [KUR] 3,950,000 first language speakers (1980), out of 6,500,000 in the ethnic group in Turkey (1993 Johnstone); 938,000 in Syria (1993); 480,000 in Germany, 51,000 in Armenia (1979), 25,000 in Kazakhstan; 14,000 in Kyrghyzstan (1993), 2,933 in Turkmenistan, 20,000 in Azerbaijan (1989 census), 33,000 in Georgia (1993); 4,000 in Jordan; 173,000 in Lebanon; 200,000 in Iran; 22,000 in Belgium; 40,000 in Netherlands; 3,000 in Norway; 10,000 in Sweden; 53,000 in Switzerland; 6,000 in United Kingdom; 7,000,000 to 8,000,000 in all countries (1987 estimate); 12,000,000 to 15,000,000 total ethnic Kurds including Kurdi speakers. The majority are in the provinces of Hakkari, Siirt, Mardin, Agri, Diyarbakir, Bitlis, Bingol, Van, Adiyaman, and Mus. Also many in Urfa, Elazig, Kars, Tunceli, Malatya, Erzurum, Karaman Maras, Sivas, Ankara, and other provinces. Also in Iraq, Bahrain, Kuwait, France, Austria, USA. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Kurdish. Dialects: GUWII, HAKKÂRI, JEZIRE (BOTAN, BOHTÂNI, BUHTÂNI), URFI, BÂYAZIDI, SURCHI, QOCHÂNI, BIRJANDI, ALBURZ, SANJÂRI, JUDIKÂNI. Differences in speaking among dialects, but all use the same written form. Distinct from Kurdi (Southern Kurdish). Ethnic names also include Doudjik, Kizibakh. Not many are very bilingual in Turkish. Roman script is used in Turkey; Arabic script in Syria, Iraq, and Iran; Cyrillic script in former USSR. Armenian script is not used now. 28% literacy rate. Language of wider communication. Mountain slope. Traditionally pastoralists, now agriculturalists. Muslim (Sunni and Alevi), some Yezidi, secular. NT 1872. Bible portions 1856-1993. Work in progress.

LADINO (DZHUDEZMO, JUDEO SPANISH, SEFARDI, JUDEZMO, HAKITIA, HAKETIA, SPANYOL) [SPJ] 8,000 or fewer first language speakers out of 20,000 in all countries Jews in Turkey (1980 estimate); 160,000 total (1985 T. Harris). Mainly in Istanbul; some in Izmir. Also in Israel, USA. Ethnic group in other countries. Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Ibero-Romance, North, Central. Chief language of Sefardic Jews. Nearly all are bilingual in Turkish. The Donme are a Ladino-speaking group in Turkey, adherents of Shabbetai Zeni. There were 15,000 in 1976. Weekly newspaper in Istanbul in Judezmo and Turkish, Roman script. Jewish. Bible 1829. NT 1829. Bible portions 1547-1873.

LAZ (LAZURI, LAZE, CHAN, CHANZAN, ZAN, CHANURI) [LZZ] 30,000 first language speakers out of 92,000 in the ethnic group in Turkey (1980 estimate); 3,943 monolinguals (1965 census); 1,000 to 1,500 in Germany (1987); 2,000 in Georgia (1982 estimate); 33,000 or more in all countries. Rize in northeast, towns of Kemer, Atin, Artasen, Vitse, Arkab, Hopa, Sarp; and villages in Artvin, Sakarya, Kocaeli, and Bolu provinces. South Caucasian, Zan. Reported to be 95% bilingual in Turkish, with only the older people not being bilingual. Their name for their language is 'Lazuri'. Not a written language in Turkey. In Germany they have their own journal, cultural society. Linguists recognize that Laz and Mingrelian are inherently unintelligible with each other. Fishermen. Muslim. Survey needed.

OSETIN (OSSETE) [OSE] 588,000 in all countries. The Digor dialect is reported to be in Bitlis and another small town in the west. Iron dialect in cities or towns of Sarikamis and Erzerum. Also in Mugla, Kars, Antalya. Also in Georgia, Russia, other republics of the former USSR, and Germany. May also be in Syria. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Eastern, Northeastern. Dialects: DIGOR, TAGAUR, KURTAT, ALLAGIR, TUAL, IRON. Russian Orthodox, Sunni Muslim. NT 1993. Bible portions 1848-1984.

ROMANI, BALKAN [RMN] 25,000 to 40,000 Arlija in Turkey; 1,000,000 in all countries (1980 UBS). Also in Iran, Yugoslavia, Bulgaria, Romania, Hungary, Greece, France, Germany, Italy, Moldova, Ukraine. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Romani, Balkan. Dialect: ARLIJA (ERLI). A Gypsy language. Muslim. Bible portions 1912-1937. Work in progress.

SERBO-CROATIAN (BOSNIAN) [SRC] 20,000 first language speakers (1980), out of 61,000 in Turkey (1980 estimate); 2,345 monolinguals (1965 census); 21,000,000 in all countries (1995). Scattered in western Turkey. Also in Yugoslavia, Macedonia, Romania, Hungary, Slovakia, Austria, southern Italy, Greece, Russia, Sweden, USA, Canada, Australia. Indo-European, Slavic, South, Western. 95% bilingual in Turkish. Muslim. Bible 1804-1968. NT 1963-1983. Bible portions 1564-1987.

SHIKAKI [SHF] Also in Iraq and Iran. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Kurdish. May be intelligible with Kurmanji. Survey needed.

SYRIAC (CLASSICAL SYRIAC, ANCIENT SYRIAC, SURYAYA, SURYOYO, LISHANA ATIGA) [SYC] Turkey, Iraq, and Syria. Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, Aramaic, Eastern. Dialects: WESTERN SYRIAC, EASTERN SYRIAC. The Syrian churches (Eastern (Nestorian), Syrian Orthodox (Jacobite), Syrian Catholic (Melkite, Maronite) developed a vast literature based on the Edessa (currently Sanliurfa, southeastern Turkey) variety of the Syrian dialect. The Assyrian group (see Assyrian Neo-Aramaic in Iraq and elsewhere) separated denominationally from the Chaldean (see Chaldean Neo-Aramaic in Iraq) and Jacobite (see Turoyo in Turkey and Syria) in the Middle Ages. Became extinct in the 10th to the 12th centuries. Still used as a literary secular language among followers of these churches, although rarely. Neo-Eastern Aramaic languages spoken by Christians are often dubbed 'Neo-Syriac', although not directly descended from Syriac. Christian: Nestorian, Jacobite, Melkite, Maronite, Syrian Orthodox. Bible 1645-1891. NT 1555-1920. Bible portions 1625-1904.

TATAR [TTR] Several thousand in ethnic group in Turkey, but not all speak Tatar. 7,000,000 in all countries (1991 WA). Istanbul and perhaps other places. Also in Russia, Afghanistan, China, Finland, and USA. Altaic, Turkic, Western, Uralian. Muslim. Bible portions 1864-1995. Work in progress.

TURKISH (TÜRKÇE, TÜRKISCH, ANATOLIAN) [TRK] 46,278,000 in Turkey, 90% of the population (1987); 845,550 in Bulgaria (1986); 19,000 in Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, Kyrghyzstan, and Tajikistan (1979 estimate); 18,000 in Azerbaijan; 120,000 in Cyprus; 128,380 in Greece (1976 WA); 63,600 in Belgium (1984 Time); 1,552,300 in Germany (1984 Time); 150,000 in Romania (1993); 250,000 in Macedonia and Yugoslavia (1982); 3,000 in Iraq (1990); 2,570 in Iran; 24,123 in USA (1970 census); 8,863 in Canada (1974 govt. statistics); 135,000 in France (1984 Time); 192,000 in Netherlands (1984 Time); 67,000 in Austria (1993); 20,000 in Sweden (1993); 3,102 in Georgia; 30,000 in Denmark (1993); 1,000 in Finland; 53,000 in Switzerland; 60,000 in United Kingdom; 750 in United Arab Emirates; 500 in El Salvador; 900 in Honduras; 59,000,000 in all countries (1995 WA). Also in Russia, Ukraine. Altaic, Turkic, Southern, Turkish. Dialects: DANUBIAN, ESKISEHIR, RAZGRAD, DINLER, RUMELIAN, KARAMANLI, EDIRNE, GAZIANTEP, URFA. Danubian is western; other dialects are eastern. The Karamanli are Turkish-speaking Greeks. The Roman script is now used. Typology: SOV. Muslim. Bible 1827-1941. NT 1819-1991. Bible portions 1782-1985.

TURKISH SIGN LANGUAGE [TSM] Deaf sign language. Survey needed.

TURKMEN (TRUKHMEN) [TCK] 925 in Turkey (1982); 5,397,500 in all countries. Tokat Province. Also in Turkmenistan, Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan, USA, Germany. Altaic, Turkic, Southern, Turkmenian. Refugees from Afghanistan; now Turkish citizens. Sunni Muslim. NT 1994. Bible portions 1880-1994.

TUROYO (SURYOYO, SYRYOYO, TURANI, SÜRYANI) [SYR] 3,000 in Turkey (1994) out of 50,000 to 70,000 population; 20,000 in Sweden (1994); 5,000 in USA (New York, New Jersey, Massachusetts, 1994); 7,000 in Syria (1994); 3,000 in Iraq (1992); 2,000 in Australia (1994); 20,000 in Germany (1994); 4,000 in Netherlands (1994); 2,000 in Belgium (1994); 70,000 in all countries (1994 Hezy Mutzafi). Southeastern Turkey, Mardin Province (originally). Also in Lebanon, Canada, Brazil, Argentina. Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, Aramaic, Eastern, Central, Northwestern. Dialects: MIDYAT, MIDIN, KFARZE, <ILWARDO, ANHIL, RAITE. Related to, but distinct from Northeastern Aramaic varieties. Turoyo subdialects exhibit a cleavage between Town Turoyo (Midyat Turoyo), Village Turoyo, and Mixed (Village-Town) Turoyo. The latter is spoken mainly by the younger generation outside Tur <Abdin, Turkey, the language's original location, and is gaining ground thoughout the Jacobite diaspora in other countries. All speakers are bilingual in their national languages or local lingua francas, and some are multilingual. Known among scholars almost exclusively as 'Tûrôyo'. 'Suryoyo' is a popular name. 'Western Syriac' refers to the Classical Western Syriac liturgy and orthography used by Turoyo speakers. Syriac script is used. Christian (Syrian Orthodox=Jacobite). Bible portions 1983. Work in progress.

UBYKH (UBYX, PEKHI, OUBYKH) [UBY] Haci Osman village, near the Sea of Marmara, near Istanbul. North Caucasian, Northwest, Ubyx. A century ago there were 50,000 speakers in the Caucasus valleys east of the Black Sea. Most migrated to Turkey in 1894. Ethnic group now speaks a distinct dialect of Adygey. Extinct.

UYGHUR (UIGHUR, UYGUR, UIGUIR) [UIG] 500 or more first language speakers in Turkey (1981); 7,214,431 in China (1990 census); 245,000 in Kazakhstan, Kyrghyzstan, Uzbekistan (1986); 3,000 in Afghanistan; 1,000 in Mongolia; a few hundred families of traders in Pakistan; 7,464,000 or more in all countries. Kayseri city, and an unknown number in Istanbul. Also in Taiwan, possibly Iran. Altaic, Turkic, Eastern. Sunni Muslim. Bible 1950. NT 1914-1939. Bible portions 1898-1995. Work in progress.

UZBEK, SOUTHERN [UZS] 1,981 in Turkey (1982); 1,403,000 in Afghanistan (1991); 50,000 in Pakistan (1993); 1,455,000 or more in all countries. Hatay, Gaziantep, and Urfa provinces. Also possibly in Germany. Altaic, Turkic, Eastern. Refugees from Afghanistan; now Turkish citizens. Distinct from Northern Uzbek of Uzbekistan and China. Sunni Muslim. Survey needed.

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