Ifugao, Tuwali


A language of Philippines

Alternate Names
Gilipanes, Ifugaw, Kiangan Ifugao, Quiangan

30,000 (2000 SIL), increasing. Only those below grade-school age are monolingual. L2 users: Occasionally speakers of other languages will use Tuwali, mostly in trading or because of intermarriage.


Luzon, south Ifugao Province.

Language Maps
Language Status

4 (Educational).


Hapao Ifugao, Hungduan Ifugao, Lagawe Ifugao. 77% intelligibility of Amganad Ifugao [ifa], 78% of Batad Ifugao [ifb]. Hapao dialect has 88% intelligibility of Hungduan dialect. Lexical similarity: 80% with Amganad Ifugao [ifa], 72% with Batad Ifugao [ifb], 78% with Hapao dialect, 86% with Hungduan dialect.


VSO; prepositions; genitives, relatives after noun heads; articles, adjectives, numerals before noun heads; question word initial; 1 suffix, 2 infixes; passives; causatives; comparatives; V, CV, CVC.

Language Use

Vigorous. Used by other language speakers in trading and in exogamous marriages. High bilingualism; all are bilingual by the time they are in elementary school. All domains. Court, religion, commerce. All ages. Positive attitudes. 100% also use Amganad Ifugao [ifa]. 100% also use English [eng]. Those over 40 use more English than others. 100% also use Filipino [fil]. 100% also use Ilocano [ilo]. Used as L2 by Keley-i Kallahan [ify].

Language Development
Literacy rate in L1: 25,000 can read and write. Literacy rate in L2: 60%. Taught in primary schools. Bible: 2005.

Latin script [Latn].

Other Comments

Kiangan is the place, Tuwali the language. Christian.