Fulfulde, Maasina


A language of Mali

Alternate Names
Macina, Peul

1,000,000 in Mali (2007 S. Crickmore). Population total all countries: 1,008,500.



Language Status

4 (Educational). Recognized language (1982, Decree No. 159 of 19 July, Article 1).


Eastern Macina, Western Macina. Some dialect differences, but all dialects in Mali perceived inherently intelligible. Substantial Bamanankan [bam] influence. There is skewing between the ethnic and linguistic relationships. A member of macrolanguage Fulah [ful].

Language Use

All domains. All ages. Positive attitudes. Also use Bamanankan [bam]. Used as L2 by Ana Tinga Dogon [dti], Bankan Tey Dogon [dbw], Bunoge Dogon [dgb], Tiemacèwè Bozo [boo], Tieyaxo Bozo [boz].

Language Development
Literacy rate in L1: 5% (2007 S. Crickmore). Literacy rate in L2: 5% in Bambara [bam] (2007 S. Crickmore). Taught in primary schools. Newspapers. Radio programs. Dictionary. Grammar. NT: 2005.

Arabic script [Arab], Maghribi and Naskh styles. Latin script [Latn].

Other Comments

Maasina in Mali is a major Fula geopolitical state. Ethnonym: Fulbe in Fulfulde [ffm]; Fulani in English. Glossonym: Peul or Toucouleur in French. Muslim, Christian.

Also spoken in:

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