A language of Paraguay

Alternate Names
Ache-Guayaki, Axe, “Guaiaqui” (pej.), “Guayakí” (pej.), “Guoyagui” (pej.)

1,000 (2006 census). 50 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 1,420.


Separate shared enclaves (3); north, Caaguazu and Alto Parana departments, northwest of Itaouyry; and central, Lake Del Rio Yguazu area; Caaguazu, Guaira, and Paraguari departments, area between Colonel Oviedo and Colonel Villaricca; south enclave entirely within Alto Parana Department, Narranja and Iruno districts; dialects: Chupa Pou, Kontuwy, Kontuwywe, Arroyo Bandera, Cerro Moroti, Puerto Barra, Ypetimi.

Language Maps
Language Status

5 (Developing).


Ache gatu, Ache purä, Ache wa, Ñacunday River Ache (“Ache irollä” (pej.)). 3 dialects remaining, Ache purä is dormant. High Intelligibility between Ache gatu and Ache wa, only Ñancunday River Ache’s intelligibility is low for the other two dialects.


SOV; postpositions; noun head initial; content q-word initial; clause constituents indicated by word order; both tense and aspect; passives; nontonal; 15 consonant and 12 vowel phonemes.

Language Use

Home, friends; mixed use: Religion. All ages. Positive attitudes. 80% also use Paraguayan Guaraní [gug]. Less than 1% also use Portuguese [por]. 30% also use Spanish [spa].

Language Development
Literacy rate in L1: 20%. Literacy rate in L2: 80% in Guaraní [gug]. Taught in primary schools. Poetry. New media. Radio programs. Dictionary. Grammar. Bible portions: 1978–2007.

Latin script [Latn].

Other Comments

Christian, traditional religion.