A language of Nepal

Alternate Names
Kulu Ring, Kulunge

33,200 in Nepal (2011 census).


Sagarmatha Zone, Solukhumbu district, in Hungu river valley, Bung, Pelmang, Chhemsing, Chheskam, Lucham, Chachalung, Satdi, Gudel, Namlung, Sotang, and Chekma villages; Kosi Zone, Sankhuwasabha district, Mangtewa, Yaphu, and Seduwa VDCs; Bhojpur district, Phedi, Limkhim, Khartanga, and Wasepla VDCs.

Language Maps
Language Status

6b (Threatened). Language of recognized indigenous nationality: Rai.


Sotto Ring. 100% intelligibility between Kulung and Sotto Ring; only a few words pronounced differently. Related to Sampang [rav] and Nachering [ncd].


SOV; postpositions; noun head final; no noun classes or genders; content q-word initial; 1 prefix, up to 3 suffixes; clause constituents indicated by case-marking; verbal affixation marks person and number; ergativity; tense; no passives or voice; nontonal; 22 consonant and 6 vowel phonemes.

Language Use

Home, friends, religion. Some use among children and adolescents. Almost all can understand some Nepali [npi] at a basic level. Used as L2 by Eastern Mewahang [emg], Nepali [npi], Western Mewahang [raf].

Language Development
High motivation for literacy. Poetry. Magazines. New media. Dictionary. Grammar. Bible portions: 1976.

Devanagari script [Deva].

Other Comments

Exogamous clan marriage. The high number of Kulung reflect the tendency of smaller groups to consider themselves Kulung, but are not Kulung by origin. The Kulung possibly absorb smaller groups. Traditional religion.

Also spoken in:

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