A language of Nepal

Alternate Names
Kumal, Kumali, Kumbale, Kumhale, Kumkale

12,200 (2011 census), decreasing. 0 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 99,400.


Lumbini Zone, Nawalparasi district, south of Darai [dry] language area; Arghakhanchi and Palpa districts; Gandaki Zone, Gorkha and Tanahun districts; Rapti Zone, Dang district.

Language Maps
Language Status

7 (Shifting). Language of recognized indigenous nationality: Kumal.


Arghakhanchi, Gorkha, Nawalparasi, Palpa. All four dialects are mutually intelligible, with Arghakhanchi being the most different.


SOV; postpositions; noun head final; 2 noun classes or genders; content q-word in situ; 1 prefix, up to 3 suffixes; clause constituents indicated by case-marking; verbal affixation marks person and number; ergativity; both tense and aspect; passives and voice; nontonal; 29 consonant and 6 vowel phonemes.

Language Use

Religion; mixed use: Home, friends, work. Older adults and elderly. Some use among adolescents. Increasingly positive attitudes, though not reflected in their language choices. All are bilingual in Nepali [npi], even the elderly are speaking Nepali half the time with each other. Most children do not speak Kumal at all. (UNESCO).

Language Development
Poetry. Magazines. Newspapers. Films. Videos. Dictionary.

Devanagari script [Deva].

Other Comments