A language of South Sudan

Alternate Names
Kpala, Kpara, Kparla, Kredj, Kreich, Kreish, Kresh

16,000 in South Sudan (2013 SIL). L2 users: 4,000 in South Sudan.


West Bahr el Ghazal state: Raga and north through Katta, Kosho and Boro to Kafia Kingi.

Language Maps
Language Status

5 (Developing). Recognized language (2011, Transitional Constitution Article 6(1)).


Dongo, Gbaya-Dara, Gbaya-Gboko, Gbaya-Ndogo (Kresh-Ndogo), Gbaya-Ngbongbo (Kresh-Hofra), Naka (Kresh-Boro), Orlo (Woro). 8 tribes and dialects. Gbaya-Ndogo is prestigious and understood by all. Naka is largest and also well understood.


SVO; prepositions; genitives, articles, relatives after noun heads; adjectives before, numerals usually before noun heads; CV, V, CCV (CVC rare); 5 tones.

Language Use

All domains. All ages. Positive attitudes. Also use Sudanese Spoken Arabic [apd]. Used as L2 by Aja [aja], Mangayat [myj], Yulu [yul].

Language Development
Developed literacy materials in use. Taught in primary schools. Bible portions: 2003–2014.

Latin script [Latn].

Other Comments

Different from Gbaya languages in the Niger-Congo family.

Also spoken in:

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