A language of China

Alternate Names

20 (Bradley 2007). Some additional semi-speakers in 3 remote villages (Bradley 2007). Ethnic population: 10,700,000 (2000 census).


Liaoning, Jilin, Hebei, and Beijing provinces; Heilongjiang Province, a few Manchu-speaking villages in Aihui and Fuyu counties; small enclave in northeast Nei Mongol Province, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region.

Language Maps
Language Status

8b (Nearly extinct). Language of recognized nationality: Manchu (Man).


Alechuxa, Bala, Jing, Lalin.

Language Use

Long extinct among the mainly urbanized Manchu, but still studied in an ongoing scholarly tradition (Bradley 2007). Older adults, 50 and older. Positive attitudes. All bilingual. Nonspeakers of Manchu in the ethnic group speak Mandarin [cmn]. Written Chinese in common use. Used as L2 by Daur [dta].

Language Development
Literacy rate in L1: About 50 read and write. Literacy rate in L2: 82%. Dictionary. Grammar. NT: 1835.

Mongolian script [Mong], Manchu style, used since 1599. Mongolian script [Mong], Old Manchu style, no longer in use.

Other Comments

Traditional religion, Buddhist.