Tohono O’odham


A language of United States

Alternate Names
Nebome, Nevome, O’odham, O’othham, Papago-Pima, Upper Piman

14,000 in United States (Golla 2007). Population total all countries: 14,094. 180 monolinguals (1990 census). Ethnic population: 33,000 (Ichihashi-Nakayama 2004). Including 20,000 Papago, 13,000 Pima (Ichihashi-Nakayama 2004).


South central Arizona. 60 villages on 7 reservations.

Language Status

6b (Threatened).


Akimel O’odham (Pima), Tohono O’odam (“Papago” (pej.)).

Language Use

Vigorous in the west and south. All ages.

Language Development
Taught at the University of Arizona (Golla 2007). From primary school on, schools of the Tohono O’odham Nation teach the language. Dictionary. Grammar. NT: 1975.

Latin script [Latn].

Other Comments

Different from Pima Bajo [pia] of Mexico.