A language of Nepal

Alternate Names
Puma Kala, Puma La, Puma Pima

6,690 (2011 census), decreasing. L2 users: Adults use L2 as much as L1 (Toba, Toba, and Rai 2005).


Sagarmatha Zone, south Khotang district, Diplung, Chisapani, Devisthan, Mauwabote, and Pauwasera VDCs; Udayapur district, Beltar, and Saunechour VDCs; Ruwa Khola valley to Buwa Khola across the Dudh Koshi southward.

Language Maps
Language Status

6b (Threatened). Language of recognized indigenous nationality: Rai.


SOV; postpositions; noun head final; content q-word in situ; clause constituents indicated by both case-marking and word order; verbal affixation marks person and number; ergativity; tense and aspect; no passive or voice, but antipassive is a remarkable feature; nontonal.

Language Use

Home, religion, work; mixed use: Friends. Older adults and elderly. Some use among children, adolescents, and young adults. Positive attitudes, especially among younger generation. Also use Bantawa [bap], Chamling [rab], Nepali [npi].

Language Development
Poetry. Magazines. Films. Videos. Dictionary.

Devanagari script [Deva].

Other Comments

Traditional religion, Christian, Hindu.