A language of India

Alternate Names
Bhilki, Sansiboli

60,000 in India (Gusain 2002). Population total all countries: 76,200.


Rajasthan; Punjab; Haryana; Delhi; Himachal Pradesh; Jammu and Kashmir; Madhya Pradesh; Karnataka; Uttar Pradesh.

Language Status

7 (Shifting).


Intermediate between Eastern Punjabi [pan] and Hindustani (see Hindi [hin]). Sometimes identify themselves as Marwari [rwr]. Related to Rajasthani [mwr], Sindhi [snd], Eastern Punjabi. Lexical similarity: 71% with Urdu [urd], 83% with the Sochi dialect of Sansi [ssi](1998). Numerous phonological and morphological borrowings from Eastern Punjabi [pan], Hindi [hin], and Gujarati [guj] (Gusain 2002).

Language Use

Not being passed on to the next generation. Much mixing of Hindi [hin], Eastern Punjabi [pan], or Gujarati [guj] (Gusain 2002). Home only. Mainly older adults. Also use Eastern Punjabi [pan], Gujarati [guj], Hindi [hin].

Language Development
Literacy rate in L1: Below 1%. Literacy rate in L2: Below 5%.
Other Comments

Bhils by caste. Called a Gypsy language. They have an argot called Farsi. Gusain (2002) classifies this as a Rajasthani dialect. Socially separate from surrounding groups. Governed by their own social norms and economy. Losing some tribal characteristics but are not yet integrated into the national mainstream (Gusain 2002). Hindu.

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